A Borderless Facade

A Borderless Façade


One of the most emerging technologies replying on one of the most recognised resolution systems across different jurisdictions, both being borderless they provide profuse opportunities to help each other and develop a profound system of trust, transactions and dispute resolution. Development of Blockchain technology has emerged into one of the most important cyber innovation, which is also the base of all the cryptocurrencies available in the financial market and the developments of smart contracts. Smart contracts and Cryptocurrencies are not yet part of our day-to-day life however its growing and it’s taking over the traditional systems.

The development and usage of cryptocurrencies have created a dent in the financial system using fiat money. The utilization of blockchain and this curiosity in the decentralization of currencies has set out new doors to explore it at lengths yet it additionally raises significant commercial, regulatory and administrative questions. It likewise brings up issues about how future digital money disputes are to be settled in this present reality where protection of privacy is fundamental.

Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies

Blockchain is a complex kind of database, blockchain gathers data together in gatherings, otherwise called blocks, that hold sets of data. These so-called blocks have specified capacity that limits it and, when filled, are affixed onto the recently filled one, framing a chain of information known as the “blockchain.” All new data that follows that newly added cellblock is aggregated into a recently formulated block that will at that point likewise be added to the chain once occupied.

On the basic outset, cryptocurrency is a type of alphanumeric digital currency based on blockchain which is established on the fundamental principles of privacy. The crypto relies on end-to-end encryption for its safekeeping and it requires every transaction to be verified and to be regulated autonomously of any banks. Digital currencies likewise include a level of pseudonymity. Clients utilize an advanced, blockchain wallet to oversee and hold cryptographic forms of money, with every wallet attached to at least one explicit keys or addresses, instead of names and legitimate characters.

The market regarding the cryptocurrency is exceptionally powerful and very self-motivated. Notwithstanding, there is no international guideline of cryptographic forms of money that has any regulations over it, and with public administrators and controllers hustling to stay informed concerning break‑neck advancements inside the market, the dangers and risk for unwary financial brokers and investors stay huge.


“We have seen the development of new areas in different field has always brought its fair share of problems and issues. Few Possible question for those implied in cryptographic money exchanges incorporate business disagreements about moves of digital currency or the activity of keen agreements. In any case, given the pseudonymity of the market, there is additionally an elevated danger of misrepresentation and the potential for disregarding authorize systems, tax evasion laws and fear monger financing guidelines. There are additionally worries for the security of the market foundation related with digital forms of money which may yet demonstrate powerless to hacking.”

Arbitration as the Solution

In view of the previously mentioned risks it is significant for backers of cryptocurrencies to approach speedy, viable and reasonable mechanism for dispute resolution to help them with the expansive scope of potential issues they may experience in managing exchanges in cryptographic forms of money. One type of resolution that is characteristically well‑suited to the goal of digital currency matters, is international arbitration

One of the most important principle in arbitration is of Party Autonomy, the parties choose the level of confidentiality and pick authorities i.e. arbitrators with explicit skill lie at the core of the system. It accordingly upholds the secrecy that supports the digital currency market. It likewise permits the parties to appoint such people with the aptitude fundamental for the goal of questions which likely could be both in fact testing technically and concerning novel lawful issues.

“Arbitration is also more removed from the sometimes anti‑cryptocurrency rhetoric and policy objectives of regulators and, potentially, national courts. This will be appreciated by many investors in the cryptocurrency market who, at the risk of overgeneralizing, are more anti‑establishment than those invested in traditional financial models. As a neutral forum of dispute resolution, crypto‑currency investors are therefore likely to have more confidence in the arbitration process than traditional, centralized court systems.

The advantages of worldwide authorization of arbitral honors (under the New York Convention on the Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) are likewise worth remembering, given the on a very basic level borderless nature of blockchain innovation. That said it stays not yet clear how arbitral honors might be implemented against a blockchain given its decentralized nature and that exchanges are checked by an agreement instrument the customary methods for upholding grants by connection of financial resources don’t really apply.

The intrinsic adaptability of arbitration additionally proposes that it will be supported by digital money financial backers. It additionally gives more noteworthy power over how procedures are overseen. This incorporates control, by arrangement, over if or how much exposure is vital, the extent of proof and whether oral proof and hearings need to happen. The move of arbitral organizations to set up assisted and crisis techniques, which will improve procedural economy and prompted more prominent expense investment funds, may likewise prompt development here. Gatherings additionally have power over the organization of procedures, and accordingly the expanding utilization of innovation in assertion will have an effect. Specifically, the ascent of online (ODR) will change how assertion is led. Gatherings are allowed to concur, for instance, to electronic hearings led over video‑link utilizing real‑time record and online packs (if it’s not too much trouble, see our article on Online Dispute Resolution and electronic hearings). Progress in computer generated simulation innovations is likewise prone to affect how mediation procedures are led later on. It is totally predictable that future debates could be settled by committed “the internet councils” much the same as “the internet courts” as of late uncovered in Hangzhou. Its pertinent to mention that many countries have banned transactions in regards to cryptographic forms of money arguing its against the public policy of that country. Recently one arbitral tribunal in Shanghai passed an award which consisted of conversion of cryptographic money to fiat money which was overturned by the High Court stating issues in regards of public policy. Some countries have opened its boundaries to such transactions and some have restricted it, however it is to be noted that there is no regulation to rule such cryptographic issues and the national courts have not taken one stand and is still wavering in giving its decision.”


The reason arbitration will be the best suited system is its borderless nature, the institutional arbitrations does not have any border or control by one particular country. The best international arbitral institutions have done much over the last decade to improve arbitration and to offer greater procedural flexibility. This includes by updating their standard rules and model clauses and through the emergency of specialist arbitral rules and the constitution and promotion of specialist arbitrator panels. Cryptocurrency is an area ripe for similar development the unique nature of cryptocurrency, and Although the cryptocurrency industry is still relatively nascent, it has the potential for significant growth. As some cryptocurrency providers have already recognised, disputes arising from borderless currencies may be best served by a commensurately borderless form of international dispute resolution.

Not only does international arbitration offer a neutral alternative to domestic courts and result in an award that is enforceable under the New York Convention, it also allows cryptocurrency issuers and the investors to choose expert decision-makers equipped to deal with technically complex disputes, as well as protect the confidentiality of sensitive proprietary information. Indeed, arbitral rules could be specifically tailored to suit the peculiarities of cryptocurrency disputes, just as they have been for, amongst other things, intellectual property disputes and disputes arising from the space industry

End notes

  • Van den Berg, Willem. Blockchain for Fragile States: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Clingendael Institute, 2018.
  • ROGERS, ZAC. “Blockchain and the State: Vehicle or Vice?” AQ: Australian Quarterly 89, no. 1 (2018): 3-44.
  • Comply Advantage, Cryptocurrency Regulations Around the World, Coin telegraph.
  • Catalini, Christian. “Blockchain Technology and Cryptocurrencies: Implications for the Digital Economy, Cybersecurity, and Government.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 19 (2018): 36-42.
  • Nigel Blackaby Et Al. Redfern And Hunter on International Arbitration ¶ 1.04 (6th 2015).
  • Harwick, Cameron. “Cryptocurrency and the Problem of Intermediation.” The Independent Review 20, no. 4 (2016): 569-88.
  • Guodong Du, A Closer look at Hangzhou Internet Court, 3rd Nov 2019.
  • Rosenberg, Elizabeth, et al. Financial Attacks on Democracy: The Role of Cryptocurrency in Election Interference. Center for a New American Security, 2020.

Author: Shreyansh Bhansali,
Institute of Law Nirma University, Student

Leave a Comment