An Overview of Environment Protection Act 1986

The Environment Protection Act 1986


Natural Environment plays important role in Economic Environment. Unfortunely ,this Environment has come under serious menace. This threat is just due to human activities. These human activities have caused serious harm to the Environment. Most noteworthy, this damage risks the survival of living things on Earth. Therefore, there is an urgent need to save this environment.


It is now seen that environment is at risk by a wide variety of human activities as it results in the depletion of both living and non-living natural resources and life support systems. The air, water, land, living creatures as well as the environment, in general, is becoming polluted at an alarming stage that needs to be controlled and suppressed as early as possible. The EPA 1986 Act was enacted in this spirit. Various other legislations came into effect in India as to overcome this Deficiency.

The Environment Protection Act is applicable to the whole of India including Jammu & Kashmir. As a consequence of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy or Bhopal Disaster, The Government enacted the Environment Protection Act of 1986 under Article 253 of the Indian Constitution .It came into force on 19 November 1986. It has 26 sections and 4 chapters.  However, the 1986 Act was general legislation enacted under Article 253 (Legislation for giving effect to international agreements. The purpose of the Act is to execute the decisions of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. They basically relate to the protection and improvement of the human environment and the hindrance of hazards to human being,other living creatures,flora and fauna.

Ways of Saving Environment

First of all, afforestation should be given huge attention. As we know, a tree is the origin of oxygen. Unfortunately, due to urbanization many trees have been cut down. This reduces the amount of oxygen in the Habitat.Growing more trees means more oxygen.


Hence, Growing more trees would mean better life quality. Similarly, people must give attention to forest conservation. Forests are vital for the Environment. However, deforestation certainly reduces the area of forests around the World. The government must take initiative to launch programs for conservation the forests. The government must make strict rules for conservation of environment.

Soil conservation is a good way to save the Environment. For this, there must be jurisdiction of landslides, floods, and soil erosion . Furthermore, there should be more afforestation and tree plantation to preserve the soil. Moreover, terrace farming and utilize natural fertilizers are some other ways.

Waste management is a secure way of saving the environment. There must be proper disposal of wastes. Most noteworthy, this would help to keep the surroundings healthy. The government make sure to clean the streets and other polluted land areas.

Furthermore, there should be toilets in every house. Also, the government must provide enough public toilets. Pollution is apparently the biggest threat to the Environment. Smoke, dust, and harmful gases cause air pollution. The source of air pollution mostly come from industries and means of transport. Furthermore, Chemicals and pesticides cause land and water pollution.

Benefits of Saving environment

First of all, the world climate will endure homely . Harming the Environment and causing pollution have caused global warming. Due to this many humans and animals have died. Hence, saving the environment would reduce global warming. The health of people would improve. Due to pollution and deforestation, the health of most people is impoverished. Preserving the Environment will improve the health of people. Most noteworthy, saving Environment would reduce many diseases.  Saving Environment would certainly protect the animals. Extinction of many species will not take place due to saving Environment. Many endangered species would also increase in population. The water level would rise. Harm to Environment has seriously reduced the level of groundwater.

Furthermore, there is a scarcity of clean drinking water around the World. Because of this, many people fell sick and depart this life. Saving Environment would probably keep away such problems.


One of the major purpose was to Clean Ganga and other major water bodies. Second was to increase green footprint in major cities to reduce air pollution and we know how much smoke we are inhaling. Condition are extremely pathetic in major cities like Delhi. Out of 10 top most polluted cities in world 5 are from India. Lakhs of people are dying every year due to environmental issues , river are drying or are extremely polluted for eg. lakes in Bengaluru and Yamuna in Delhi. There are international treaties Like Paris environment treaty but nothing is working. In our country conditions are critical. There have been cases of Climate refugees from Cities like Delhi for example Congress president Sonia gandhi was asked to leave Delhi due to health issues which occurred because of air pollution only .Many endangered species are saved but still we need mass campaign to make public awareness . Just a week ago a Dolphin was brutally killed by bunch of people in UP. We need to make people sensitive towards nature and Animals in order to save the environment.

In history when we see Nazi’s were the first people to take environment extremely seriously . Most of the top Nazi’s were vegetarian including Adolf Hitler. They were the first Europeans to establish nature reserves and order the protection of endangered species and other wildlife habitats. Even in contemporary Europe law of Nazi Germany have deep impact on the Present Environmental laws of European countries.

Most brutal people in history as mentioned in our text books can work such relentlessly for protection of Environment. In our own country our ancestors the Ancient Hindu’s has very strong emotion for nature ,they actually used to pray them as diety but as culture degrades the sense of connection with nature has became weak . We need to inject the sense of Nature loving in minds of people for better conservation of Environment.

Author: Ananya Kashyap,
Symbiosis Law School, Nagpur

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