Implementations of International Instruments in Health Care System in India



The novel corona virus pandemic already had knocked on the door of the health care system all across the world and has awakened all of us and made us realize the value of the health care system. The pandemic has already shattered the lives of many so it is expected by the citizen to pay importance to the healthcare system of the country. The health care system is an important segment of every country. There is a need for every healthcare system to be updated and upgraded so this catastrophic condition like pandemic could be easily handled in the future. Hence healthcare system all across the country should consist of sophisticated and modern technologies.


In India’s healthcare system both the public and private sectors work hand in hand. From ancient times India is given more importance to the system of AYUSH and even today this system is given the same importance. AYUSH stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy. AYUSH was earlier known by the name of the Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy (ISM&H) which was created in March 1995 and renamed as Department of Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy (Ayush) in November 2003. The main objectives of AYUSH are to updating the educational standard of the Indian medical system. The other objective of the AYUSH is to draw up schemes for the promotion, cultivation, and regeneration of medicinal plants used in these systems. It works on research and development and evolves Pharmacopoeial standards for Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy drugs. India has developed at a high pace but still, it doesn’t adopt the scientific temperament. It can be observed through this Pandemic also India doesn’t work on scientific temperament but it worked on unconventional means like lighting candles, banging on plates, etc. India lacks modern technologies in the health care system. There is a need for the implementation of international instruments in India.


India lacks an International healthcare system which is largely accepted by most countries. Countries like France, Italy, and the US are moving at a high pace in the development of the healthcare system. France is one of that country which has an effective and efficient healthcare system. It is ranked highest in the global healthcare system due to the good technologies adopted by the France in direction of the healthcare system.

France has adopted technologies like ATIH, DMP, etc because of these technologies France has been able to achieve a fruitful result in the health care system. ATIH means technical agencies for information on hospitalization its basic functions and responsibilities are to maintain the information record of various hospitals technically so that proper coordination of the hospital could take place. It aims to replace the ineffective manual data processing of Information and better communication at a different level including the regional healthcare agencies. It helps in matching up the demand of the patient through timely diagnosis.

The healthcare system of France is combined with IT through the use of smart health cards first used in 1998 which simplified and speed up the medical reach to the people. The card includes the digital special biometric photograph so that fraud could be controlled it also contains patient healthcare records which helps to get the history of the patient health. DMP stands for Dossier Medical Personnel (DMP) or ‘personal medical file’, which has tried to create Electronic Medical Record for all French residents covered by health insurance. Due to these techniques, there is the quality of healthcare facilities and timely access to medical procedures.

The France healthcare system has adopted a unique health care facility i.e. bottom-up approach. This approach covers the regional area also which helps to strengthen and widening up the E-health infrastructure. India lacks in such techniques as ATIH, DMP, etc. India faces the challenge of data hesitancy and this can be seen through this pandemic. In this pandemic, one of the biggest issues which India is currently facing is inaccurate data collection and inadequate data. Inaccurate data collection is creating a great troublesome for the healthcare servant i.e. doctors.

Due to inadequate data, it is very difficult for the scientist to evaluate the result of the vaccine which is being used to fight the coronavirus pandemic. India needs to implement such international instruments like ATIH and DMP which France had already adopted in the past and due to which France is the country that is working excellent in the health care system. If India will adopt these instruments then it would be able to improve its healthcare system.

There are various well-known models of healthcare that are widely accepted by different countries which have strong health structures. some of these healthcare systems are given below which are accepted by many global powers to strengthen their health infrastructure and there lies a need for adoption of these models in India to make them worthy and strong enough to tackle the catastrophes like Covid.
One of the well-known models of the healthcare system is the Beveridge model This model by Sir William Beveridge in the United Kingdom developed in 1948.

This model is basically centralized as in this there is a national health service. In this type of model, the government acts as the main player as it the single-payer of all the health expenditure in the country removing the competition from the private players. In this system, there is no one who has to pay the medical bills of his own as it’s like the investment or insurance of health through taxes. As the citizens who pay taxes for the government lie in this category or we can say that this model of health care is funded through taxes only. It’s used by the United Kingdom, Spain, New Zealand, Cuba, Hong Kong. This model is not applied by India in its healthcare system this may be the reason for the inefficiency in India’s healthcare system.

The other prominent model is the Bismarck model. This model is founded by Otto von Bismarck in about the 19th century and it is a more decentralized form of healthcare. This model works like insurance created by employers and employees who are responsible for funding their health from their salary or payroll reduction and thus finally creating “sickness funds” for their future. The plans in these aren’t profit-based. It is basically used by Germany, Belgium, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands, France. There is an urgent need for India to use these models to improve its healthcare system. If these international instruments are implemented in India, then in the future it would be able to fight pandemics easily.

Another model which can be held suitable in the context of India is the national health insurance model In this model if we find a blind of both the above two models i.e. the Bismarck model and the Beveridge model. In this like the Beveridge model, the government acts as the main player and pays centralized role as it the single-payer of all the health expenditure in the country removing the competition from the private players and works for the betterment of medical procedures. However, like the Bismarck model, the model contains the features like private players have to act as providers of the services.

The main health providers are private players or hospitals and but expenditure on health is done by national healthcare agencies and government i.e. the payments come from a government-run insurance program that every citizen pays in form of taxes. In this, there is no profit or loss condition as a motive doesn’t include financial measures to be taken or deny for claims creating a much easier way to access health care. This balance between private and public gives hospitals and providers more freedom without the frustrating complexity of insurance plans and policies. It is used by Canada, Taiwan, and South Korea. There is a requirement for the adoption of these models like Bismarck, Beveridge, and national health insurance in India to ameliorate its health care system. Implementation of these models will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the Indian healthcare system.

India can also adopt some of the healthcare techniques from Italy also to improve its health care system. The health care system of Italy is based on national healthcare service. Thus it helps to provide universal health coverage to all its citizens and that too free of cost. The public healthcare hospitals are well maintained and quite decent. Some of the treatments which are provided by the public healthcare system are small co-payment include tests, medications, surgeries during hospitalization, family doctor visits, and medical assistance provided by pediatricians and other specialists.

The expats who are employed in Italy have to qualify for the local government healthcare network. To check their eligibility for the program, foreign nationals should pay a visit to the nearest local health authority, the Aziende Sanitaria Locale (ASL), and register with a doctor. Once registered, a health card and a health number will be issued. These will serve as a ticket for free visits to the chosen doctor.

Alternatively, European Union citizens moving to Italy can take advantage of the reciprocal healthcare agreements with their home country. At least three weeks prior to traveling to Italy expats will need to apply for form E111, the certificate of entitlement to treatment. If moving to Italy as a non-European Union citizen, travelers will be required to have private insurance cover. Upon arrival, there is an eight-day window to visit the local police station and present a health policy that is valid throughout the duration of one’s stay. India should also work on similar lines as Italy is working in their healthcare system. India should also provide these facilities to the expats who are employed in India this will also increase India’s GDP and lead to the up gradation of India’s healthcare system.


There is an urgent need in India for the development of International Instruments which had already adopted by countries like France, Italy, Canada, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany, Belgium, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Spain, New Zealand, Cuba, and Hong Kong. If there will be the implementation of techniques like ATIH, DMC in India it will help to resolve the problem of data hesitancy. This technique will also help in data integration. India’s healthcare system should ponder upon the various models like Beveridge, Bismarck, and the national health insurance model. The Healthcare system of India should also derive some international instruments from Italy. Implementation of this international instrument in India will lead to improvement in the healthcare system.

Secondly, it would also help in enhancing health care facilities which may help the citizen of India. Thirdly, implementation of some of this instrument may also help India to reach the highest rank in a good world healthcare system. Fourthly, the implementation of this instrument will make the health care system of India more effectual and efficacious. The implementation of these instruments in India would lead to a fruitful result in the healthcare system. India’s health care system should work hard to implement this international instrument to make it effective and efficient.


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